Like the title already proposes, this work takes up different cultural characteristics of olden Mexico, in order to construct a view on the way of thinking, that stands behind it. The first part shows different modes of access to the seemingly exotic theme - it isn't exotic! Constantly, there can be reference points found and a present-comparable position of problems. Such ways of access to the thinking of the tlamatinime, those who know something and their surroundings, are made with our first thinking-traditions that were characterized with the adjective philosophical. The mythos has been interpreted since an early time. The language Nahuatl prepares another access to the alien liveliness of discussed thinking. A considerable access goes over the tradition of Franciscan etnological investigation. The second part presents some old mexican particularities concerning culture and science: art, poetry, music, time and calender. In the third part, an interpretation of the differerentiality of poetic-philosophical thinking in the Mesoamerican area is intended. The hard bone of tradition receives its value as well as its soft marrow, out of which new life with new bones can be made, that is to say, ways of thinking or myths. Within the many dual forms in Mesoamerican culture and art, an old-known and fertile game of contradictions is shown.