The relationship with Nature has repeatedly been a cultural and political battleground, and not only in recent Austrian history. In fact, the question of nature has always been key to understanding Austria's cultural and political development. The management of societal relations to nature, continuities and disruptions in the image of nature, and the consequences and indirect consequences of the economisation, politicisation and technologising of natural systems are central themes of all the following texts. These address of concrete interaction with nature using examples at different spatial and temporal scales, and investigate how humans impact upon (external) nature through work, in order on one hand to derive experiences and insights from her and on the other hand, to transfer nature in return through representation into the cultural sphere of power and politics, and from this eventually to take new programmes for "planned" intervention and transformation back to nature once again. Studies of agro-ecological transformations underline the all-encompassing economisation of space in its entirety from the 18th century onwards. As a study of the Hohe Tauern National Park during National Socialism is able to demonstrate, even nature conservation is a story of power. In the Nazi State, in which natural and human images correlated, conservative and nature conservation concerns could only be put into practice in a piecemeal fashion. Many nature conservation initiatives had to surrender to the primacy of military-industrial interests and the wish to exploit energy resources. Interventions in riverine landscapes, which characterize the modernization process, such as river engineering, canal, harbour and power station construction, are provided here examples of the form of "dominion" over nature discussed in the following. In particular, this concerns planned transformations of the Danube region into a hybrid (=socio-techno-natural) riverine landscape, from a functional perspective into an infrastructure system controlled by technological and practical considerations, with water as the primary material carrier and the remaining characteristics and processes of a dynamic natural system with agency - visible, for example, through catastrophe (flooding), or in the risk spiral of colonizing interventions. Infrastructure systems such as these have a special relationship with space and time. Their planning, construction and operation require a long-term perspective, and infrastructures, once constructed, define for the long term the society that makes use of them, since they require societal institutional arrangements and investment of work (= energy) in order to maintain desired conditions and to compensate for undesired side-effects. Infrastructures controlled by technology were and remain central factors of power. Infrastructures accumulate power, for example, through the specific logic of technology, through artefacts of colonial representations of power and dominion, or through evolving social debate and discussion. The relationship between societies and "their" nature is reflected in materiality, in the degree of intervention, and in the concentration and appropriateness of infrastructure development. Infrastructures can thus represent high-level repositories for the environmental history of power. This dissertation represents an attempt to contribute to the study of this subject within the interdisciplinary research field of environmental history.